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Columbia University tunnels

Columbia University has an extensive tunnel system connecting most buildings on campus and acting as conduits for steam, electricity, telecommunications, and other infrastructure. The oldest tunnels are from the mental asylum that existed before the Morningside Campus was built. These tunnels are small and extremely hot, and they connect to Buell/La Maison Française, the one building remaining from the asylum. The steam tunnel system between Hamilton, Kent, Philosophy, and Fayerweather connects to these old tunnels. Another steam tunnel system connects Mudd, Uris, Dodge Fitness Center, and Havemeyer, and is generally considered the easiest to access. These tunnels contain old rail tracks that were used to transport coal for heating. They also contain the "Signature Room," where one can find many quotes and names left by previous tunnelers. As with all tunnels on campus, these contain many more secrets for students to discover. This tunnel system also used to connect to the first floor of Pupin Hall, but that way was blocked in the 1990s. Until the Summer of 2003, the first floor of Pupin was virtually untouched from the last days of the Manhattan Project. Notes and daily logs scattered dusty tables. Half-completed experiments sat in stasis, only visible to the few explorers who got in. Since 2003, the first floor has been cleaned out, and is now mostly empty. This floor used to house one of the first cyclotrons until Spring 2008, when the cyclotron was removed and destroyed in order to make room for the infrastructure leading to the Interdisciplinary Science Building. Another tunnel system connects Havemeyer, Math, Lewisohn, and the Miller Theater. Tunnels also connect Butler, Carman, Lerner, and supposedly Furnald and Hogan. John Jay/Hartley/Wallach can also be reached from this system, but the door is locked, and the tunnels connect to JJ's Place, making exploration difficult. A tunnel between Butler and Low is rumored to exist, but no evidence of such a tunnel has ever been found. Any entrance to this tunnel from Butler is well hidden or heavily locked, and the Low entrance would be next-to-impossible to find given that Campus Security is based on the first floor. There are no tunnels across Broadway to the Barnard campus, although Barnard has its own set of tunnels and sub-basements. There are no tunnels across Amsterdam Avenue to East Campus: however, the subterranean garage deep below the School of International & Public Affairs does have tunnels leading to the dormitories and the Law School.

PATH (Toronto)

PATH is a network of underground pedestrian tunnels, elevated walkways, and at-grade walkways connecting the office towers of Downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It is more than 30 kilometres (19 mi) long. According to Guinness World Records, PATH is the largest underground shopping complex in the world with 371,600 square metres (4,000,000 sq ft) of retail space.The PATH network's northerly point is the Toronto Coach Terminal at Dundas Street and Bay Street, while its southerly point is Waterpark Place on Queens Quay. Its main north-south axes of walkways generally parallel Yonge and Bay Streets, while its main east-west axis parallels King Street. There is continuous expansion to PATH system around Union Station. Two towers are being built as part of CIBC Square and will be linked to the PATH, and extending the PATH to east to cross over Yonge Street by a pedestrian bridge into the Backstage Condominium building (Esplanade and Yonge corner), giving closed access to Union, Scotiabank Arena, and other buildings in the Financial District. == History == === Early pedestrian tunnels === In 1900, the Eaton's department store constructed a tunnel underneath James Street, allowing shoppers to walk between the Eaton's main store at Yonge and Queen streets and the Eaton's Annex located behind the (then) City Hall. It was the first underground pedestrian pathway in Toronto, and is often credited as a historic precursor to the current PATH network. The original Eaton's tunnel is still in use as part of the PATH system, although today it connects the Toronto Eaton Centre to the Bell Trinity Square office complex, on the site of the former Annex building. Another original underground linkage, built in 1927 to connect Union Station and the Royal York Hotel, also remains an integral part of today's PATH network. === Expansion === The network of underground walkways expanded under city planner Matthew Lawson in the 1960s. Toronto's downtown sidewalks were overcrowded, and new office towers were removing the much-needed small businesses from the streets. Lawson thus convinced several important developers to construct underground malls, pledging that they would eventually be linked. The designers of the Toronto-Dominion Centre, the first of Toronto's major urban developments in the 1960s (completed in 1967) were the first to include underground shopping in their complex, with the possibility of future expansion built in. The city originally helped fund the construction, but with the election of a reform city council this ended. The reformers disliked the underground system based on Jane Jacobs' notion that an active street life was important to keeping cities and neighbourhoods vital and that consumers should be encouraged to shop on street level stores rather than in malls (whether they be above ground or below); however, the system continued to grow, as developers bowed to their tenants' wishes and connected their buildings to the system. This also converted low-valued basements into some of the most valuable retail space in the country. The first expansion of the network occurred in the 1970s with the construction and underground connection of the Richmond-Adelaide office tower and the Sheraton Centre hotel complex.Construction of the PATH tunnel north from Scotia Plaza through the Bay Adelaide Centre started in fall 2007. Completion of this section closed the last remaining gap in the north-south route through PATH that parallels Yonge Street, thus eliminating the need to double back from Bay Street to get between buildings located on the eastern edge of PATH. == Coordination and signage == In 1987, City Council adopted a unified wayfinding system throughout the network. The design firms Gottschalk+Ash International and Muller Design Associates were hired to design and implement the overall system in consultation with a diverse group of land owners, City staff and stakeholders. A colour-coded system with directional cues was deployed in the early 1990s. Within the various buildings, pedestrians can find a PATH system map, plus cardinal directions (P (red) for south, A (orange) for west, T (blue) for north, H (yellow) for east) on ceiling signs at selected junctions. The signage can be hard to find inside some of the various connected buildings. Building owners concerned about losing customers to neighbouring buildings insisted that the signs not dominate their buildings, or their own signage system. The city relented and the result is the current system. Many complain that the system is hard to navigate. == Current network == PATH provides an important contribution to the economic viability of the city's downtown core. The system facilitates pedestrian linkages to public transit, accommodating more than 200,000 daily commuters, and thousands of additional tourists and residents en route to sports and cultural events. Its underground location provides pedestrians with a safe haven from the winter cold and snow, alongside the summer heat and humidity.In August 2014, a major southward expansion of the PATH network brought it closer to the Toronto waterfront, with the opening of a covered pedestrian bridge connecting Scotiabank Arena south to WaterPark Place on Queens Quay (crossing the Lake Shore Boulevard/Gardiner Expressway corridor and Harbour Street). == Future expansion == In 2011, the City of Toronto released a long-term expansion plan for the PATH, developed by Urban Strategies Inc. As part of the expansion plan there will be 45 new entry points, and the walkway expanded to as long as 60 kilometres when changes are completed.The city of Toronto is constructing a 300-metre, CAD$65 million tunnel connecting Union Station to Wellington Street, the first publicly owned segment of the 4,000,000-square-foot (370,000 m2) PATH subterranean shopping district. Toronto planners have begun work to guide future PATH development and ensure PATH link construction is included in basement levels of key new buildings. == Connected facilities == More than 50 buildings or office towers are connected through the PATH system. It comprises twenty parking garages, five subway stations (Osgoode station connects only to the Four Seasons Centre), two major department stores, two major shopping centres, six major hotels, and a railway terminal. The CN Tower, Ripley's Aquarium of Canada, and Rogers Centre are connected via an enclosed elevated walkway, called the SkyWalk, from Union Station, although the walkway does not have indoor connections to these attractions. == See also == Underground city

Underground City

The Underground City (officially RÉSO or La Ville Souterraine in French) is the name applied to a series of interconnected office towers, hotels, shopping centres, residential and commercial complexes, convention halls, universities and performing arts venues that form the heart of Montreal's central business district, colloquially referred to as Downtown Montreal. The name refers to the underground connections between the buildings that compose the network, in addition to the network's complete integration with the city's entirely subterranean mass transit system, the Métro. Moreover, the first iteration of the Underground City was developed out of the open pit at the southern entrance to the Mount Royal Tunnel, where Place Ville Marie and Central Station stand today. Though most of the connecting tunnels pass underground, some passageways and all the principal access points are located at ground level. In this regard, the Underground City is more of an indoor city (ville intérieure) than a truly subterranean city, although there are vast commercial sectors located entirely underground. The network is particularly useful during Montreal's long winters, during which time well over half a million citizens are estimated to use it every day. The network is largely climate controlled and well-lit, and is arranged in a u-shape with two principal north-south axes connected by an east-west axis. Combined, there are 32 kilometres' worth of tunnels over twelve square kilometres of the most densely populated part of Montreal. In total, there are more than 120 exterior access points to the network, not including the sixty or so Métro stations located outside the official limits of the Réso, some of which have their own smaller tunnel networks. Some of the city's larger institutions, namely McGill University, the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Concordia University and the Université de Montréal, also have campus tunnel networks separate from the Underground City.

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